An Exogenous Ketone Ester Modulates Appetite but Not Dietary Intake

Webb, Richard and Pennington, Beau (2021) An Exogenous Ketone Ester Modulates Appetite but Not Dietary Intake. An Exogenous Ketone Ester Modulates Appetite but Not Dietary Intake, 5 (2). ISSN 2475-2991

[thumbnail of nzab055_065.pdf]
nzab055_065.pdf - Published Version

Download (83kB) | Preview


Previous research suggests exogenous ketone esters (KE) suppress appetite by directly modulating regulatory hormones; however, their impact upon eating behaviors is unknown. The authors aimed to determine if the diminished appetite resulting from KE consumption is accompanied by a reduction in dietary intake.

After informed consent participants (n = 7) were recruited to a randomized cross-over trial. Participants recorded their diet for three consecutive days, starting the day prior to their first study appointment. During this visit, fasted participants were randomized to consume either a KE or matched dextrose placebo (DP) beverage. Blood samples were drawn at regular intervals and analyzed for β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), glucose, leptin and ghrelin. Appetite was self-reported using a visual analogue scale (VAS). One-week later participants were invited to a second visit where the study was repeated using the other beverage. Dietary data was analyzed using MyFood24 and statistical analysis was performed using Microsoft Excel and IBM SPSS (v.26).

BHB increased 30 minutes after consuming the KE (0.21 ± 0.20 to 4.21 ± 0.66 mmol/L) (P < 0.001) and remained elevated. Blood glucose increased 30 minutes after consuming the DP (4.87 ± 0.42 to 8.11 ± 1.41 mmol/L) (P < 0.001) and promptly returned to baseline. Although there were no changes in leptin levels, those who consumed the KE demonstrated suppressed ghrelin production 120 minutes after baseline (2430.00 ± 323.46 to 1763.14 ± 367.67 pg/mL) (P = 0.026). Furthermore, the VAS also revealed that 120 minutes after baseline participants who consumed the DP reported a greater desire to eat (+26.86 ± 23.55 mm) (P = 0.038) and were less satisfied (−30.43 ± 12.52 mm) (P = 0.003). Despite this, there was no significant differences in the calorie intake of those who consumed the KE compared to the DP on the day before (1941.06 ± 1048.13 vs 1792.86 ± 833.23 kcal), during (1594.64 ± 677.07 vs 1536.52 ± 457.22 kcal) or after (1674.41 ± 801.43 vs 1914.35 ± 804.78 kcal) the study visits.

Consuming a KE, despite impacting upon self-reported measures of appetite and associated biomarkers, does not modulate dietary intake. This should be considered when assessing the potential role of KE for appetite management.

Item Type: Article
Additional Information and Comments: Copyright © The Author(s) on behalf of the American Society for Nutrition 2021. This article is published and distributed under the terms of the Oxford University Press, Standard Journals Publication Model (
Faculty / Department: Faculty of Science > School of Health Sciences
Depositing User: Richard Webb
Date Deposited: 22 Jun 2021 13:21
Last Modified: 22 Jun 2021 13:21

Actions (login required)

View Item View Item