Brown adipose tissue and glucose homeostasis – the link between climate change and the global rise in obesity and diabetes

Symonds, Michael and Farhat, Grace and Aldiss, Peter and Pope, Mark and Budge, Helen (2018) Brown adipose tissue and glucose homeostasis – the link between climate change and the global rise in obesity and diabetes. Adipocytes. ISSN 2162-3945 (Accepted for Publication)

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Abstract

There is increasing evidence that the global rise in temperature is contributing to the onset of
diabetes, which could be mediated by a concomitant reduction in brown fat activity. Brown
(and beige) fat are characterised as possessing a unique mitochondrial protein uncoupling
protein (UCP)1 that when activated can rapidly generate large amounts of heat. Primary
environmental stimuli of UCP1 include cold-exposure and diet, leading to increased activity
of the sympathetic nervous system and large amounts of lipid and glucose being oxidised by
brown fat. The exact contribution remains controversial, although recent studies indicate that
the amount of brown and beige fat in adult humans has been greatly underestimated. We
therefore review the potential mechanisms by which glucose could be utilised within brown
and beige fat in adult humans and the extent to which these are sensitive to temperature and
diet. This includes the potential contribution from the peridroplet and cytoplasmic
mitochondrial sub-fractions recently identified in brown fat, and whether a proportion of
glucose oxidation could be UCP1-independent. It is thus predicted that as new methods are
developed to assess glucose metabolism by brown fat, a more accurate determination of the
thermogenic and non-thermogenic functions could be feasible in humans.

Item Type: Article
Additional Information and Comments: This is an Accepted Manuscript of an article published by Taylor & Francis in Adipocytes on 21st November 2018, available online: https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/21623945.2018.1551689
Faculty / Department: Faculty of Science > School of Health Sciences
Depositing User: Grace Farhat
Date Deposited: 22 Nov 2018 13:12
Last Modified: 21 Nov 2019 01:15
URI: https://hira.hope.ac.uk/id/eprint/2679

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