Electromyographic Analysis of the Shoulder Girdle Musculature during External Rotation Exercises

Alizadehkhaiyat, Omid and Hawkes, D and Kemp, G and Frostick, S (2015) Electromyographic Analysis of the Shoulder Girdle Musculature during External Rotation Exercises. Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine. ISSN 2325-9671

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Official URL: http://www.dx.doi.org/10.1177/2325967115613988


Background: Implementation of overhead activity, a key component of many professional sports, requires an effective and balanced activation of shoulder girdle muscles particularly during forceful external rotation motions. Purpose: The study aimed to identify activation strategies of 16 shoulder girdle muscles/muscle segments during common shoulder external rotational exercises. Study Design: Cross-Sectional Study Method: EMG was recorded in 30 healthy subjects from 16 shoulder girdle muscles/muscle segments (surface electrode: anterior, middle and posterior deltoid, upper, middle and lower trapezius, serratus anterior, teres major, upper and lower latissimus dorsi, upper and lower pectoralis major; fine wire electrodes: supraspinatus, infraspinatus, subscapularis and rhomboid major) using a telemetric EMG system. Five external rotation (ER) exercises (standing ER at 0o and 90o of abduction, and with under-arm towel roll, prone ER at 90o of abduction, side-lying ER with under-arm towel) were studied. Exercise EMG amplitudes were normalised to EMGmax (EMG at maximal ER force in a standard position). Univariate analysis of variance (ANOVA) and post-hoc analysis applied on EMG activity of each muscle to assess the main effect of exercise condition. Results: Muscular activity differed significantly among the ER exercises (P<0.05 – P<0.001). The highest activation for anterior and middle deltoid, supraspinatus, upper trapezius, and serratus anterior occurred during standing ER at 90o of abduction; for posterior deltoid, middle trapezius, and rhomboid during side-lying ER at 0° of abduction; for lower trapezius, upper and lower latissimus dorsi, subscapularis, and teres major during prone ER at 90o of abduction, and for clavicular and sternal part of pectoralis major during standing ER with Under-Arm Towel. Conclusion: Key glenohumeral and scapular muscles can be optimally activated during the specific ER exercises particularly in positions that stimulate athletic overhead motions. Clinical Relevance: These results enable sport medicine professionals to target specific muscles during shoulder rehabilitation protocols while minimising the effect of others, providing a foundation for optimal evidence-based exercise prescription. They also provide information for tailored muscle training and injury prevention in overhead sports.

Item Type: Article
Keywords: Overhead Sports; Electromyography; Shoulder Exercises; External Rotation; Rehabilitation
Faculty / Department: Faculty of Science > School of Health Sciences
Depositing User: Richard Lawrence
Date Deposited: 04 Dec 2015 15:21
Last Modified: 22 Feb 2016 14:44
URI: http://hira.hope.ac.uk/id/eprint/612

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